A tensile test or tension test, is one of the most fundamental and common types of mechanical testing. A force is applied to the material being examined (e.g. elastomers, adhesives, plastics, metal etc.) and the specimen’s response (strain) to the stress is measured. By doing this, tensile tests determine how strong a material is and how much it can elongate.
A plot of stress vs strain is generated, profiling the relationship between elasticity, plasticity, and ultimate strength. With the stress vs strain curve, Young’s Modulus can also be determined (as per ASTM E111). These values are determined experimentally using a Zwick Roell ZwickiLine Z5.0 TN for Flexible Low-Force Testing machine. The frame can hold up to 5 kN while the current loadcell capacity is 2.5kN. The instrument is suitable for use with international standards, such as:
Metals: ISO 6892-1:2016, ASTM E8/8M
Steels: ASTM A370-19
Flexible cellular polymeric materials: ISO 1798:2008, ISO 8067:2018, ASTM D3574
Polymers: ISO 527:2019, ASTM D3039
Wood: ISO 13061-6:2014, ISO 13061-7:2014, I.S. EN 314-1:2005.
Textiles: ISO 13934-1:2013
Tissue paper and products: ISO 12625-4,-5, ISO 1924-2:2008
Tensile testing on plastic pipes: ISO 6259-1:2015, ISO 8521, ISO 8513, ASTM D2105, ASTM D2290, EN 1393, EN 1394.
For some materials (e.g. metals and plastics), there will be some problems identifying the linear elastic region. Therefore, an offset method to determine the yield strength of the material is applied. This methodology is commonly applied when measuring the yield strength of metals. The above image is taken from ISO 6892-1:2016.